Science Sources: Detection and Attribution

Climate Signals tracks detection and attribution studies in real time. Below is an updating database of studies that find the fingerprint of human-caused climate change on observed trends and events. The database is limited to studies of local significance in the United States and studies of global significance. For a broader database of peer-reviewed studies and organizational reports on climate change trends, please see all Science Sources.

Search or browse our collection of detection and attribution studies below, or learn more about detection and attribution studies.

Title Source Datesort descending Author(s)
Towards the detection and attribution of an anthropogenic effect on climate Climate Dynamics Dec 1, 1995 Benjamin D. Santer, Karl E. Taylor, Tom M. L. Wigley, Joyce E. Penner, Philip D. Jones, Ulrich Cubasch
A search for human influences on the thermal structure of the atmosphere Nature Jul 4, 1996 B. D. Santer, K. E. Taylor, T. M. L. Wigley, T. C. Johns, P. D. Jones, D. J. Karoly, J. F. B. Mitchell, A. H. Oort, J. E. Penner, V. Ramaswamy, M. D. Schwarzkopf, R. J. Stouffer, S. Tett
Detecting Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change with an Optimal Fingerprint Method AMS Journal of Climate Oct 1, 1996 Hegerl, G.C., H.v. Storch, K. Hasselmann, B.D. Santer, U. Cubasch, and P.D. Jones
Multi-fingerprint detection and attribution analysis of greenhouse gas, greenhouse gas-plus-aerosol and solar forced climate change Climate Dynamics Jan 27, 1997 G. C. Hegerl, K. Hasselmann, U. Cubasch, J. F. B. Mitchell, E. Roeckner, R. Voss, J. Waszkewitz
Detecting climate signals in the surface temperature record AMS Journal of Climate Apr 1, 1998 Gerald R. North and Mark J. Stevens
Causes of twentieth-century temperature change near the Earth's surface Nature Jun 10, 1999 Simon F. B. Tett, Peter A. Stott, Myles R. Allen, William J. Ingram, John F. B. Mitchell
Are observed decadal changes in intermediate water masses a signature of anthropogenic climate change? Geophysical Research Letters Sep 15, 2000 Helene T. Banks, Richard A. Wood, Jonathan M. Gregory, Timothy C. Johns, Gareth S. Jones
Attribution of twentieth century temperature change to natural and anthropogenic causes Climate Dynamics Jan 1, 2001 P. A. Stott, S. F. B. Tett, G. S. Jones, M. R. Allen, W. J. Ingram, J. F. B. Mitchell
Anthropogenic Warming of Earth's Climate System Science Apr 13, 2001 Sydney Levitus, John I. Antonov, Julian Wang, Thomas L. Delworth, Keith W. Dixon, Anthony J. Broccoli
Detection of Anthropogenic Climate Change in the World's Oceans Science Apr 13, 2001 Tim P. Barnett, David W. Pierce, Reiner Schnur
Increasing risk of great floods in a changing climate Nature Jan 31, 2002 P. C. D. Milly, R. T. Wetherald, K. A. Dunne & T. L. Delworth
Global ocean warming tied to anthropogenic forcing Geophysical Research Letters Jun 1, 2002 Reichert, Bernhard K.; Schnur, Reiner; Bengtsson, Lennart
Estimation of natural and anthropogenic contributions to twentieth century temperature change Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Aug 27, 2002 Simon F. B. Tett, Gareth S. Jones, Peter A. Stott, David C. Hill, John F. B. Mitchell, Myles R. Allen, William J. Ingram, Tim C. Johns, Colin E. Johnson, Andy Jones, David L. Roberts, David M. H. Sexton, Margaret J. Woodage
Toward Regional-Scale Climate Change Detection AMS Journal of Climate Mar 1, 2003 Francis W. Zwiers and Xuebin Zhang
Causes of atmospheric temperature change 1960–2000: A combined attribution analysis Geophysical Research Letters Mar 11, 2003 Gareth S. Jones, Simon F. B. Tett, Peter A. Stott
Detection of human influence on sea-level pressure Nature Mar 20, 2003 Nathan P. Gillett, Francis W. Zwiers, Andrew J. Weaver, Peter A. Stott
Attribution of regional‐scale temperature changes to anthropogenic and natural causes Geophysical Research Letters Jul 16, 2003 Peter A. Stott
Contributions of Anthropogenic and Natural Forcing to Recent Tropopause Height Changes Science Jul 25, 2003 B. D. Santer, M. F. Wehner, T. M. L. Wigley, R. Sausen, G. A. Meehl, K. E. Taylor, C. Ammann, J. Arblaster, W. M. Washington, J. S. Boyle, W. Brüggemann
Detection of a Human Influence on North American Climate Science Nov 14, 2003 David J. Karoly, Karl Braganza, Peter A. Stott, Julie M. Arblaster, Gerald A. Meehl, Anthony J. Broccoli, Keith W. Dixon
Detection of changes in temperature extremes during the second half of the 20th century Geophysical Research Letters Oct 26, 2005 Christidis, Nikolaos, Stott, Peter A., Brown, Simon, Hegerl, Gabriele C., Caesar, John