Science Sources

Search the database below for peer-reviewed studies and organizational reports documenting climate change trends. (Note: The database does not include studies on projected, or future change.) For studies that specifically identify the fingerprint of climate change on observed trends and events, visit Science Sources: Detection and Attribution.


Title Source Date Author(s)
Climate change now detectable from any single day of weather at global scale Nature Climate Change Sebastian Sippel, Nicolai Meinshausen, Erich M. Fischer, Enikő Székely, Reto Knutti
Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change Assessment: Part I Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society Thomas Knutson, Suzana J. Camargo, Johnny C. L. Chan, Kerry Emanuel, Chang-Hoi Ho, James Kossin, Mrutyunjay Mohapatra, Masaki Satoh, Masato Sugi, Kevin Walsh, and Liguang Wu
NCA 4: Climate Change Impacts in the United States (Volume I) U.S. Global Change Research Program Donald Wuebbles, David Fahey, and Kathleen Hibbard
IPCC AR5 WGI: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis Cambridge University Press Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)
Attribution of climate extreme events Nature Climate Change Kevin E. Trenberth, John T. Fasullo & Theodore G. Shepherd
Title Source Date Author(s)
Annual and seasonal tornado trends in the contiguous United States and its regions International Journal of Climatology Todd W. Moore
Annual and seasonal tornado trends in the contiguous United States and its regions International Journal of Climatology Todd W. Moore
Increasingly Powerful Tornadoes in the United States Geophysical Research Letters James B. Elsner, Tyler Fricker, and Zoe Schroder
Getting ahead of Flash Drought: From Early Warning to Early Action American Meteorological Society Jason A. Otkin, Molly Woloszyn, Hailan Wang, Mark Svoboda, Marina Skumanich, Roger Pulwarty, Joel Lisonbee, Andrew Hoell, Mike Hobbins, Tonya Haigh, and Amanda E. Cravens
Flash Droughts: A Review and Assessment of the Challenges Imposed by Rapid-Onset Droughts in the United States American Meteorological Society Jason A. Otkin, Mark Svoboda, Eric D. Hunt, Trent W. Ford, Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, and Jeffrey B. Basara
Rapid intensification of the emerging southwestern North American megadrought in 2020–2021 Nature Climate Change A. Park Williams, Benjamin I. Cook & Jason E. Smerdon
Assessing the climate-scale variability of atmospheric rivers affecting western North America Geophysical Research Letters Alexander Gershunov, Tamara Shulgina, F. Martin Ralph, David A. Lavers, Jonathan J. Rutz
Human influence has intensified extreme precipitation in North America Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Megan C. Kirchmeier-Young and Xuebin Zhang
Unprecedented climate events: Historical changes, aspirational targets, and national commitments Science Advances Noah S. Diffenbaugh, Deepti Singh, and Justin S. Mankin
Precipitation Extremes: Trends and Relationships with Average Precipitation and Precipitable Water in the Contiguous United States American Meteorological Society Kenneth E. Kunkel, Thomas R. Karl, Michael F. Squires, Xungang Yin, Steve T. Stegall, and David R. Easterling
Cold waves are getting milder in the northern midlatitudes Environmental Research Letters Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Eli Mitchell-Larson, Gabriel A Vecchi, Hylke de Vries, Robert Vautard and Friederike Otto
Sixfold Increase in Historical Northern Hemisphere Concurrent Large Heatwaves Driven by Warming and Changing Atmospheric Circulations American Meteorological Society Cassandra D. W. Rogers , Kai Kornhuber , Sarah E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick , Paul C. Loikith , and Deepti Singh
Diverse Characteristics of U.S. Summer Heat Waves American Meteorological Society Bradfield Lyon and Anthony G. Barnston
Spatiotemporal Evolution of Heat Wave Severity and Coverage Across the United States Geophysical Research Letters David Keellings and Hamid Moradkhani
The Effects of Historical Housing Policies on Resident Exposure to Intra-Urban Heat: A Study of 108 US Urban Areas MDPI Jeremy S. Hoffman, Vivek Shandas, and Nicholas Pendleton
Social inequalities in climate change-attributed impacts of Hurricane Harvey Nature Communications Kevin T. Smiley, Ilan Noy, Michael F. Wehner, Dave Frame, Christopher C. Sampson & Oliver E. J. Wing
Attributable human-induced changes in the magnitude of flooding in the Houston, Texas region during Hurricane Harvey Climatic Change Michael Wehner & Christopher Sampson
The Fifth U.S. National Climate Assessment U.S. Global Change Research Program Crimmins, A.R., C.W. Avery, D.R. Easterling, K.E. Kunkel, B.C. Stewart, and T.K. Maycock, Eds.
The Shifting Scales of Western U.S. Landfalling Atmospheric Rivers Under Climate Change Geophysical Research Letters Alan M. Rhoades, Andrew D. Jones, Abhishekh Srivastava, Huanping Huang, Travis A. O'Brien, Christina M. Patricola, Paul A. Ullrich, Michael Wehner, Yang Zhou
Observed increases in North Atlantic tropical cyclone peak intensification rates Scientific Reports Andra J. Garner