Overland JE, Wang M, Walsh JE, Christensen JH, Kattsov VM, Champan WL

Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme

Published date May 3, 2011

Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA): Climate Change and the Cryosphere

  • One of the most comprehensive updates on climate change in the Arctic, and builds on a similar assessment in 2005
  • Draws on work by hundreds of experts
  • Finds the Arctic Ocean could be nearly ice free in summers within 30 to 40 years, earlier than projected by the IPCC
  • Finds that quickening climate change in the Arctic including a thaw of Greenland's ice could raise world sea levels by up to 1.6 meters by 2100
  • Finds the past six years (until 2010) have been the warmest period ever recorded in the Arctic
  • Finds global sea level is projected to rise by 0.9 meters (2ft 11in) to 1.6 meters (5ft 3in) by 2100 and the loss of ice from Arctic glaciers, ice caps and the Greenland ice sheet will make a substantial contribution