Robert Twardosz, Urszula Kossowska-Cezak

Acta Geophysica

Published date February 1, 2015

Exceptionally Hot and Cold Summers in Europe (1951-2010)

  • Explores exceptional thermal conditions, an area of research that has increased in significance in the context of the changes that are being observed in climate
  • Addresses the frequency, long-term change and spatial coverage of exceptionally hot summers, and exceptionally cool summers (EHS and ECS) in Europe
  • Uses the statistical criterion of plus/minus two standard deviations from the long-term average to identify EHS and ECS at 60 weather stations over the period 1951–2010
  • Demonstrates that EHS are characterized by greater temperature anomalies than ECS and are approximately twice as frequent
  • Finds that they occurred virtually everywhere within the study area, whilst ECS are concentrated in its northern part
  • Finds that five EHS (1972, 2002, 2003, 2007, and 2010) and three ECS (1956, 1962, and 1976) were large enough to be recorded by at least 10% of the stations