Lijing Chengm, John Abraham, Jiang Zhu, Kevin E. Trenberth, John Fasullo,Tim Boyer, Ricardo Locarnini, Bin Zhang, Fujiang Yu, Liying Wan, Xingrong Chen, Xiangzhou Song, Yulong Liu, and Michael E. Mann

Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

Published date January 9, 2020

Record-Setting Ocean Warmth Continued in 2019

  • States that human-emitted greenhouse gases (GHGs) have resulted in a long-term and unequivocal warming of the planet
  • States that — because the oceans are the main repository of the Earth’s energy imbalance — measuring ocean heat content (OHC) is one of the best way to quantify the rate of global warming
  • Presents new OHC data for the year 2019
  • These data reveal that the world’s oceans (especially at upper 2000 m) in 2019 were the warmest in recorded human history
  • Finds that the ocean heat anomaly (0−2000 m) in 2019 was 228 Zetta Joules (ZJ, 1 ZJ=1021 Joules) above the 1981−2010 average and 25 ZJ above 2018
  • Finds that the evolution of OHC shows that the upper 2000 m OHC in 2019 was 228 ± 9 ZJ above the 1981–2010 average
  • The past five years are the top five warmest years in the ocean historically with modern instruments, and the past ten years are also the top ten years on record